The Science of EMF

How does LFMF work?

  1. Electric field: Strength of electric field E is measured in V/m, earth atmosphere 130 V/m directed towards earth centre; Electron movement causes current in direction + to -; DC current doesn’t cause induction.
    Magnetic field: Strength of magnetic field H is measured in A/m and magnetic induction B in Telsa N/A *m or in W/m-2; H=I/2(pi)r generated around wires; B is proportional to H and multiplied by magnetic permeability (0.96-0.99 diamagnets), (1.1-1.4 paramagnets), (1000-2000 ferromagents); B of earth 30-70 microT.
    Electromagnetic field: According to Maxwell’s Laws any changing magnetic or electric field will create a reciprocal opposite field ie. magnetic field generates electric field and vice versa; strength of generated electromagnetic field is proportional to E & H & frequency of changes (Hertz) & speed of propagation; to be classified as such extremely low frequency magnetic fields must be less than 60 Hz. The fields propagate at the speed of light.
  2. Paramagnetism, Diamagnetism and Ferromagnetism: To obtain a magnetic moment in a substance uncompensated magnetic spins have to add to more then zero; Sum of spins in diamagnetic substance is zero, in presence of other fields it generates an electrostatic field; In paramagnetic substance sum of spins is more than zero, the paramagnetic fields are weak (ex. Oxygen); In ferromagnetic substance the sum of uncompensated spins can be very large (ex. Iron); In most cells we have paramagnetic proteins surrounded by diamagnetic ones.
  3. Electromagnetic waves: They are generated by the coils inside the various appliances like mats, pads, ring etc. They deliver energy to the body of the recipient. This energy produces thermal and extra thermal effects on the body. The thermal effects contribute slightly to an increase to the rate of the chemical reactions taking place. Their man effect though is feeling of warmth during the treatment. The extra thermal effects are the most important for the use of electromagnetic fields in therapy. These effects change the easily measurable electrical parameters inside the cells and on their membranes thus altering their normal behaviour. In addition it was observed that the effect on the chain of the cells is much stronger than on the individual ones. There are also changes in the surrounding plasma influencing efficiency of exchanges of substances in and out of the cells. To have an influence on the body the waves have to be delivered in carefully calibrated packets and at the right induction levels.

The extra thermal effects of Electromagnetic Stimulation on the body.

  1. Bioenergetic effects on the individual cells provide them with extra energy to stimulate faster growth and replication. Intercellular communication insures cooperation in production of required substances between different cells and hence leads to the regeneration of the organism.
  2. Biochemical effects increase enzymatic activity in the cells making production of the needed substances that much faster. The effect on ATP related processes  insures provision of sufficient energy to power this extra activity.
  3. Bioelectric effects act on the cell membrane allowing much better communication between adjacent cells. Absorption and secretion of the substances to and from the surrounding areas is also greatly enhanced.
  4. Electrodynamic effects regulate the way molecules align themselves and thus affect ionic currents in the fluids like blood, lymph and intercellular plasma. This has positive effects on the speed on the speed of distribution of the substances carried and on the rates of their absorption once delivered.
  5. Magnetomechanic effects act on uncompensated magnetic spins of atoms. The quantum jumps of the electrons in the orbit change the way that the protein receptors react to the individual atoms. It allows better fit for many substances and in consequence more efficient way of using them. This effect also improves the way that body gets rid of free radicals and helps it to neutralise harmful substances.
  6. Ionic cyclotron resonance affects directly ions and cations in the body fluids. Especially their effect on sodium ions is held to be responsible for the providing of the link allowing electromagnetic waves to interact meaningfully with the living material. Also  importance of the sodium and potassium ions in the body processes allowed lowering of the inductions levels to less then 100 microtesla in electromagnetic stimulation. The improved way of using different ions makes body much more efficient is using its resources.

Uses of Pulsed LFMF: magnetic therapy and magnetostimulation.

  1. Magnetic therapy: induction levels [0.1-20miliT; 4-8miliT in practice, 100 times strength pf the earth magnetic field], frequencies [5-100Hz, usually 10-40Hz], wave patterns simple sinusoidal, triangular, rectangular.
  2. Magnetostimulation: induction levels [1picoT-100microT, usually 30-70microT,corresponding to the strength of the earth magnetic field], frequencies [complex: basic wave 2000-3000Hz-combined wave 180-200Hz-packet 12-30Hz-group 2-8Hz-series0.08-0.3Hz], complex wave variable saw tooth patterns.
  3. Magnetic therapy and Magnetostimulation: Induction levels much higher in MT incomparison to MS (usually between 500 and 5000 higher). In MT wave patterns are simple and repeat themselves endlessly. In MS wave patterns are complex and variable. In MT frequency once set is maintained. In MS frequencies are combined to create complex pattern. The difference are due to the latest discoveries connected with the development of cyclotronic resonance theory which led to conclusion that most important parameter influencing biological effects was ratio of induction to frequency and not the level of induction alone.
  4. Basic differences: The high induction levels used in Magnetic Therapy activate body’s defence mechanisms much sooner then the low levels used in stimulation that the body is used to. Hence there are virtually no side effects MS. Also the sometimes contradictory results obtained in MT are explained by body starting to defend itself after too much interference. Finally body tends to adapt to a repetitive stimulus after while reducing its effectiveness over the time. This tends to occur sooner in MT than in MS. In practice MT effects are similar to MS but MS is easier to use, has fewer complication and certain things that MS does MT can not do.

Biological Effects: Summary of 30 years of experimental studies.

  1. Modification of transmission of intra and extra cellular signals [LFMF provides external stimulus which latches on to specific receptor on cell’s membrane; change in conformation activates secondary messengers like c-AMP and Ca+ ions; this creates cascade of signals within the cell which induce many changes in the activity of the cell; it was also observed that certain EM signals bypass membrane receptors and act directly on certain cell structure like mitochondria or golgi apparatus].
  2. Effects on cell membrane permeability and transport of ions [they strongly depend on induction and duration; high induction short exposure doubled activity of c-Amp in human fibroblasts but longer exposure reduced it to normal level; also long term exposure to MT magnetic field for 7 days caused disruption to normal transport processes; low level MS strength fields improved transport and concentration of ions; in study of patients with coronary artery disease concentrations of magnesium and potassium increased without corresponding increase of calcium and sodium ions; MS effects of improved transport lasted for up to a month after initial exposure].
  3. Increase in rate of replication and transcription of nucleic acids and synthesis of proteins [Short exposure to either MT or MS 20 min speeded up transfer from mitotic phase G2 to F and speeded up incorporation of specific parts of DNA; strongest effect was observed on intensification of speed of transcription of RNA and its disintegration due to speeded up transcription; this confirmed more efficient replication after exposure to suitable electromagnetic field; long term exposure or high induction caused appearance of atypical polypeptides].
  4. Increase in cellular proliferation [All studies confirmed increased rate of maturation and division of the cells].
  5. Effects on production of free radicals and cell catabolism [in MT initial exposure increased proliferation of free radicals however in healthy cells antioxidant activity increased soon after; in MS antioxidant activity increased significantly both in serum and erythrocytes, the effect persisted long after the discontinuation of the exposure; in cancerous cells proliferation of free radicals sometimes led to cell death (PDT – Photodynamic therapy)]
  6. Speeding up of body’s regeneration processes [in all studies the regeneration process after soft tissue injuries was considerably speeded up; most spectacular success was obtained in treating chronic varicose ulcers; same success in treating ulcers of stomach and colon; better utilisation of oxygen cells, improved anabolic respiration and consequent stop to oxydisation of lipids].
  7. Improved osteogenesis [Best documented area of use, all studies agreeing on substantial benefits; piezoelectric effects, vasodilatory; IGF II (insulin like growth promoting) substance is secreted giving rise to increased cell proliferation and collagen formation, also through this process Ca++ ionic movements and phosphorelation in targeted cells are increased spreading IGF II to adjacent cells; tests on rabbits showed that joints created with assistance of LFMF were stronger, more rigid with greatly increased load bearing capacity; M-RNA increased production of collagen type I & III outside cell; In all studies recovery was greatly speeded up (mean value 50% ; reabsorption of haematomas and other debris was greatly accelerated; regular exposure to LFMF halted and reversed osteoarthritis in rats after ovariectomy; surprisingly metal plates to stabilise bones had no adverse effects on LFMF functions].
  8. Strong anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects [anti-inflammatory effects were observed in many studies; analgesic effects continued for up two weeks after treatment, based on release of endogenous opiates (Naloxone blocked this effect)].
  9. Effects on cardiovascular system [isolated cell-after 10min amplitude of contraction rose significantly; on isolated hearts of frogs and rabbits strength of contractions doubled, returned to normal at the end of exposition <70Hz only; in rats after LFMF exposure and induced ischemic attack autopsy showed that the areas of damage were significantly reduced; subjects during and after vigorous exercise (ECG) showed drop in blood pressure accompanied by slowing of the heart rate and much faster than control group, the recovery period was also reduced; short term exposure in high blood pressure patients showed both rise in systolic & drop in diastolic blood pressure, normalisation after 10min; long term exposure (10 of MS treatments) showed lasting improvement (average drop in systolic 5.68 in diastolic 2.98mm Hg), similar reduction was observed after second course of treatments, reduction in blood pressure was thought to be caused by better homeostasis rather than influence on function of the heart].
  10. Effects on nervous system [a lot of attention was devoted to study of improvements in regeneration of peripheral nerves under influence of LFMF-increased proliferation of dendrites with increased activity along electromagnetic axis in axons, involvement of larger number of cells in generating signals, reduction of scarring along axon (better recovery of Schwan cells), rise in potential around & along axon, reactivation of conductivity in the axon; in studies on dopamine receptors, rats had chemically damaged dopamine system to stimulate Parkinsons disease, study of large number of people with different types of epilepsy observed marked decrease in peaks & reduction in delta & theta waves, improvement, only worked at low induction, never caused a seizure; initial studies on rats showed decrease in motor activity, increase in attention & concentration, improvement in memory (50Hz & >1miniT produced opposite effect); this led to use of MS in long study of effects on humans generally inducing Alpha waves up, Beta down, Theta down, SMR up].
  11. Effects on metabolic processes: enzymes, glucose, cholesterol [long term exposure or exposure to high induction produced stress; studies of monooxygenase enzymes in liver showed increased activity of these enzymes plus increased activity in other selected ones; very comprehensive series of experiments were done on islets of Langerhans showing proliferation and increase in size of the islets with increase of numbers of beta-cells (60% more then control group), this caused increase in production of insulin-beta cells with enlarged golgi apparatus, mitochondria and rough endoplasmic-reticulum; as result blood sugar levels were improved for up to 9 days; Exposure to LFMF decreases levels of cholesterol and lipids, especially triglycerol and beta-lipoproteins (proportional increase in alpha-lipoproteins); blood tests on people exposed to LFMF for 2-3 weeks showed lowering of cholesterol, glucose, protein also alpha1 and alpha2 globulin with increase in gamma globulin, albumin and amino-transferase, also increase in number of erythrocytes].
  12. Effects on hormones [these seem to be particularly sensitive to magnetic fields; most induction levels in a MT will cause deviation from normal during the application and for a day or so afterwards before returning to normal; probably due to stress; MS levels of induction increased rate of conversion of T4 to T3 thyroxine in thyroid gland, the effects on melatonin were regulatory in 24 hour period and slightly elevated over along period; levels of serotonin were positively influenced by the presence of the magnetic fields: long term (two years or more) exposure to LFMF in train drivers (17Hz 20miniT) lowered levels of melatonin over long period; there seems to be the biggest difference between effects of MT and MS on hormone production, for example in the study of level to testosterone in males MT decreased and MS increased its concentration].
  13. Improved blood production [first studies concentrated on finding if there was damage caused by LFMF – no damage was noticed; several studies observed increased rate of formation and release of erythrocytes from the bone marrow; several studies reported increased oxygen carrying capacity].
  14. Effects on immune system [Studies indicate increased proliferation of T lymphocytes after exposure to MS fields; LFMF for both MT and MS strength fields increased macrophage activity; High induction levels elicited unpredictable responses sometimes increasing and on other occasions decreasing the immune system activity].


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